Facts About Elodea Plants

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Elodea Plants: Their Characteristics and Role in Nature and Education

Elodea Plants in Nature and the Classroom

Elodea plants, also known as waterweeds or pondweeds, can be found in various aquatic environments and are often used in classroom science experiments to demonstrate their coexistence with other aquatic life. This article delves into the history, characteristics, uses, and potential challenges posed by Elodea plants in nature and education.

History and Distribution of Elodea Plants

The Elodea genus was first established in 1803 and comprises aquatic plants native to North and South America (Cook & Urmi-König, 1985). Elodea plants can be found in ponds, slow-moving streams, and various deep and shallow bodies of water (Jernelöv, 2017; Stewart & Kantrud, 1972).

Characteristics of Elodea Plants

Elodea plants have stems that can grow up to 2 feet long and typically display a dark green color. Their pointed leaves grow around the stem in whorls (circles) of three or more. When growing at the water’s surface, Elodea plants may send down long, pale roots (Jernelöv, 2017; Sculthorpe, 1967).

These plants are hardy and adaptive, making them easy to grow in aquariums. They can survive under various conditions, including low light and different water depths. Although Elodea plants prefer strong light, they can endure extended periods in low-light environments (Bowes, Holaday, & Haller, 1979).

Elodea plants can grow in two ways—either by floating at the water’s surface or taking root at the bottom of the water body. They can produce small white flowers that protrude above the surface, while the rest of the plant remains underwater. When chopped, each smaller segment of an Elodea plant will continue growing into a new plant (Jernelöv, 2017).

Role in Ecosystems and Reproduction

In an ecosystem, Elodea serves as a “producer,” creating its food from sunlight and carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis (Lodge, 1991). The plants reproduce primarily by shedding stalks that float away, take root elsewhere, and become new plants. They can also produce seeds, although this is not their main reproductive method (Sculthorpe, 1967).

Elodea Plants in Education

Elodea plants are popular in school science experiments due to their hardy and adaptive nature. They serve as an excellent educational tool for demonstrating the interaction of aquatic plants with other life forms in an ecosystem (Lawson, 1996).

Challenges and Invasive Species Status

Despite their educational value, Elodea plants can pose challenges in nature, as their rapid and competitive growth can crowd out other plants and clog waterways. This has led to their classification as an invasive species, resulting in the sale of Elodea being illegal in Washington, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Alabama—even as aquarium plants (Jernelöv, 2017; Simpson, 2012).

Fact Sources:

Bowes, G., Holaday, A. S., & Haller, W. T. (1979). Seasonal variation in the biomass, tuber density and photosynthetic metabolism of Hydrilla in three Florida lakes. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 17, 61-65.

Cook, C. D. K., & Urmi-König, K. (1985). A revision of the genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Botany, 21(2), 111-156.

Jernelöv, A. (2017). The Long-Term Fate of Invasive Species: Aliens Forever or Integrated Immigrants with Time? New York: Springer.

Lawson, R. (1996). The role of Elodea in school biology: A survey. Journal of Biological Education, 30(2), 132-136.

Lodge, D. M. (1991). Herbivory on freshwater macrophytes. Aquatic Botany, 41(1-3), 195-224.

Luteyn, J. L. (1999). Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden, 84, viii–xv, 1–278.

Sculthorpe, C. D. (1967). The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. London: Edward Arnold.

Simpson, D. A. (2012). Invasive species: Elodea as an example. Science Progress, 95(Pt 2), 213-225.

Stewart, R. E., & Kantrud, H. A. (1972). Vegetation of prairie potholes, North Dakota, in relation to quality of water and other environmental factors. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 585-D.